"Art makes life, makes interest, makes importance"

August 31, 2014

Bach Cantatas (52): Trinity XIX

The Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity. The readings for this Sunday combine an exhortation by Paul to the Romans to live better, more truthful lives, combined with the story of Jesus' cure of the paralyzed man.

There are three cantatas for this Sunday.

Readings:
Ephesians 4:22–28, "Put on the new man, which after God is created"
Matthew 9:1–8, Healing the paralytic at Capernaum

References:
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Cantatas:
  • Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen, BWV 48, 3 October 1723
     
    Chorus: Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen
    Recitative (alto): O Schmerz, o Elend, so mich trifft
    Chorale: Solls ja so sein
    Aria (alto): Ach, lege das Sodom der sündlichen Glieder
    Recitative (tenor): Hier aber tut des Heilands Hand
    Aria (tenor): Vergibt mir Jesus meine Sünden
    Chorale: Herr Jesu Christ, einiger Trost


    ("Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me") As the tile already announces, this is a dark-hued, but also profound cantata. The text stresses the need of the sinner for redemption, but concludes in hope. The superb opening chorus sets the atmosphere of deep despair, based on a line from Paul's letter to the Romans, "Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death?" The despairing text sung in a slow meter and with sparse accompaniment is set against an almost hidden chorale theme ("Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut") played in strict canon by the trumpet and oboes. A recitative of the alto, lamenting the "the poison of sin that rages in my breast and veins" (unfortunately, almost comical for a modern sensibility!) leads to a short chorale with an interesting chromatism. The ensuing alto aria starts with a nice oboe melody, but the text is far from congenial: "Ah, lay the Sodom of sinful limbs, as it be Your will, down destroyed!" In other words, this is a plea to destroy the sinful body but spare the soul. In the recitative and aria for tenor, the soul realizes that its redemption lies in Christ which forms the turning point to hope in the cantata. The tenor is accompanied by the strings with oboe, and the music has a characteristic lilting rhythm. That being said, the aria also retains the sorrowful demeanor of the beginning of the cantata, we don't find any real joy in this dark work. The cantata closes with a straightforward harmonization of the chorale "Lord Jesus Christ, only comfort, I will turn myself to you."


  • Wo soll ich fliehen hin, BWV 5, 15 October 1724
    Chorus: Wo soll ich fliehen hin
    Recitative (bass): Der Sünden Wust hat mich nicht nur befleckt
    Aria (tenor): Ergieße dich reichlich, du göttliche Quelle
    Recitative (alto): Mein treuer Heiland tröstet mich
    Aria (bass): Verstumme, Höllenheer
    Recitative (soprano): Ich bin ja nur das kleinste Teil der Welt
    Chorale: Führ auch mein Herz und Sinn


    ("Where shall I flee") Chorale cantata, based on a chorale in eleven stanzas of the same name by Johann Heermann (1630). The theme of Heermann's chorale and this cantata is the awareness of being a sinner who needs healing, like the paralytic in the story from Matthew. Like many of the cantatas, the theme is of a journey from dark into light, from the burden of sin to redemption. The opening chorus starts in an agitated and aggressive mood, with consciously erratic harmonies, picking up from Matthew, where Jesus almost begrudgingly cures a man with palsy to prove his qualification for forgiveness of sins. After a secco recitative follows a rather joyous tenor aria, accompanied by an obbligato viola. The tenor recitative announces that sins will be washed away by Christ's sacred blood, and the tenor aria sings of the actual washing away of these sinful stains: "Pour yourself richly, you divine fountain, Ah, wash over me with bloody streams!" The viola (only one of two times this instrument is used as an obbligato instrument in Bach, used here because it has more "red corpuscles" in its register than the violin) illustrates the washing movement, the gushing of the divine blood - a sort of divine washing machine churning away in a rather visually expressive manner. A brilliant and very rich aria. At the central position in the cantata follows a recitative by the alto, the turning point to hope, with the oboe playing the choral theme on top of the alto lines. The recitative finishes with the statement that Jesus' blood is also a shield from "the devil, death and sin" and in the ensuing aria for bass with obbligato slide trumpet (and full orchestra) this is further developed: "Be silent, host of hell... I need only show you this Blood, and you must suddenly be mute!" The virtuoso trumpet blazes fiercely away in this ferocious anthem, scattering the forces of evil. Next, the soprano (sung by a boy in Bach's time) offers a message of innocence and hope in the final recitative, after which the straightforward chorale setting brings the cantata to its close.

  • Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56, 27 October 1726
    Aria: Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen
    Recitative: Mein Wandel auf der Welt / ist einer Schiffahrt gleich
    Aria: Endlich wird mein Joch / wieder von mir weichen müssen
    Recitative: Ich stehe fertig und bereit
    Chorale: Komm, o Tod, du Schlafes Bruder


    ("I will the cross-staff gladly carry") Solo cantata. The text of this cantata is by an unknown poet, with only indirect references to the readings for this Sunday. Just like BWV 82, it is a solo cantata for bass voice. In the opening aria, the singer impersonates the follower of Christ who bears his cross and suffers torment until his sins are forgiven. There is some interesting music painting here: the awkward, stumbling song line symbolizes the dragging of a heavy cross, with descending sighing figures. It is an austere movement with an oppressive atmosphere. In the first recitative life is compared to a sea voyage to the Kingdom of Heaven - the faithful will have to suffer many tribulations, but will not be forsaken. This alludes to the reading from Mathew which starts with a voyage across a lake. The undulation of the sea is vividly depicted, as is the relief when Jesus steps on firm land. The feeling of relief is continued in the joyous second aria, a lively duet for bass and solo oboe. As often in Bach, the joy is coupled with a yearning for death. The second recitative halfway changes into an arioso, bringing back the last two lines of the first aria with a new text: "my Savior himself will wipe away my tears." The cantata concludes with a four-part chorale harmonization "Come, o death, brother of sleep" on a melody by Crüger from 1646. Here we find again the metaphor a ship being brought safely to port and the cantata concludes on a harmonious and glorious note.